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Useful Links

"Knowledge is of two kinds: we know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information on it." Samuel Johnson

Selected Web Sites

The Cochrane Collaboration is an international not-for-profit organisation, providing up-to-date information about the effects of health care. It produces and disseminates systematic reviews of healthcare interventions and promotes the search for evidence in the form of clinical trials and other studies of interventions. The Cochrane Collaboration was founded in 1993 and named for the British epidemiologist, Archie Cochrane. The major product of the Collaboration is the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews which is published quarterly as part of The Cochrane Library, and which contains regularly updated evidence-based healthcare databases.

PubMed for further search visit PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine which includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. Full author searching is now available and the Single Citation Matcher has been enhanced to include first author searching and an autocomplete feature for journal titles.

OWL Orthopaedic Web Links is a catalogue of the orthopaedic Internet. OWL has just been completely updated. A new design and links to over 7000 peer reviewed WebPages guarantee the best worldwide quality orthopaedic knowledge. Orthopaedic Web Links (OWL) was mentioned in the British Medical Journal Netlines as " ... a classy collection of orthopaedic websites. There are literally thousands of links to choose from and they are grouped into broad searchable categories. Like all good link collections, there is a newly added list and, of course, it is possible to search the whole database. This is an extremely well designed interface that offers visitors quick access to any material that interests them".

The Physician and Sportsmedicine Online is the most widely read clinical sports medicine journal in the world. Here you'll find practical, primary-care oriented articles and patient information on a broad range of topics relevant to the care of active people. Topics such as diagnosing and treating knee and ankle injuries, managing chronic disease, preventing and managing overuse injuries, helping patients lose weight safely, and all manner of exercise and nutrition topics are regularly covered in the journal.

Please note that The Physician and Sportsmedicine is now owned, operated, and copyrighted by JTE Multimedia and that free access to archived articles is no longer available. All archived articles are still available but only through several online and paper subscription options.

AAOS Patient Information this is an excellent source of patient information and brochures on various knee and general orthopaedic conditions.

Further Reading: Online Journals

If you want to learn even more, consider reading in-depth clinical and research articles in professional, sub-specialist journals. Go to the following journal web sites (you must be a subscriber to read full and download pdf articles or you can purchase individual pdf articles online).

The American Journal of Sports Medicine an invaluable resource for the orthopaedic sports medicine community, The American Journal of Sports Medicine is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, first published in 1974. It is the official publication of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM), and is ranked 5th out of 71 Sports Sciences Journals in Thomson ISI’s 2003 Journal Citation reports®, with an Impact Factor of 2.063! The journal acts as an important forum for independent orthopaedic sports medicine research and education, allowing clinical practitioners the ability to make decisions based on sound scientific information. A study published in the December 2005 issue of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery found The American Journal of Sports Medicine to be the leader among nine orthopaedic journals evaluated in the quality of scientific research published as well as in the number of times AJSM articles are subsequently cited in other journals. Investigators applied the “level-of-evidence” rating system (a guide for rating different levels of medical evidence) to 382 studies published in the nine journals in the first half of 2003. AJSM had the highest percentage of published Level I studies (randomized controlled trials deemed therapeutic) as well as highest “impact factor” (AJSM studies that were thereafter cited by other researchers). The authors concluded that Level I studies contributed most to the adoption of newer clinical techniques leading to direct improvement in patient care.


The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery nowhere is minimally invasive surgery explained better than in Arthroscopy, the leading peer-reviewed journal in the field. Every issue enables you to put into perspective the usefulness of the various emerging arthroscopic techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods - along with their applications in various situations - are discussed in relation to their efficiency, efficacy and cost benefit. As a special incentive, paid subscribers also receive access to the journal's expanded website. Online features include full text of all articles, video clips, short reports, and MEDLINE links to related articles. Arthroscopy is ranked 6th out of 48 Orthopedics titles on the 2008 Journal Citation Reports®, published by Thomson Reuters


The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery had its origin as the Transactions of the American Orthopedic Association. The first volume of that journal contained the proceedings of the meetings of 1887 and 1888. Volume XVI of the Transactions of the American Orthopedic Association is also Volume I of the American Journal of Orthopedic Surgery. In 1919, when The Journal became the official publication of the British Orthopaedic Association, the word American was dropped from the title and Orthopedic was changed to Orthopaedic. That year's volume, the Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery, became Volume I (new series). The present title, The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, was adopted in 1922. In 1948, A (American) and B (British) volumes were established. The American Volume, which is the senior, allows the British Volume to use the title that we share. The American Orthopaedic Association remained the owner of The Journal until 1954, when an independent non-profit corporation, The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc., was established. The American and British Volumes function independently. We cooperate in matters of general policy such as finance, advertising, printing, and distribution, but we do not discuss individual papers. Our methods of editing and our styles differ to some extent; our contents are totally different.


Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) was established in the fall of 1993 by the Academy in response to its membership’s demand for a clinical review journal. Two issues were published the first year, followed by six issues yearly from 1994 through 2004. In September 2005, JAAOS began publishing monthly issues. Each issue includes richly illustrated peer-reviewed articles focused on clinical diagnosis and management. Special features in each issue provide commentary on developments in pharmacotherapeutics, materials and techniques, and computer applications. The Journal's mission is dissemination of knowledge to improve the care of patients with musculoskeletal disorders. The Editorial Board selects articles that critically evaluate and synthesize current information on the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal conditions and document the current state of orthopaedic practice. Because JAAOS is a review journal, certain types of material (eg, original research, case studies, animal studies, or duplicative material) are not appropriate for publication. JAAOS is published by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, the world’s largest medical association of musculoskeletal specialists. JAAOS is provided to all members of the Academy as a benefit of membership. The Journal is also provided to residents in specified orthopaedic and osteopathic programs.

Further Reading: Online Books and Manuals

Click to enter the Internet Edition

The Merck Manual Online. 18th Edition

In 1899, the American drug manufacturer Merck & Co. first published a small book titled Merck's Manual of the Materia Medica. It was meant as an aid to physicians and pharmacists, reminding doctors that “Memory is treacherous.” Compact in size, easy to use, and comprehensive, The Merck Manual (as it was later known) became a favorite of those involved in medical care and others in need of a medical reference. Even Albert Schweitzer carried a copy to Africa in 1913, and Admiral Byrd carried a copy to the South Pole in 1929. By the 1980s, the book had become the world's largest selling medical text and was translated into more than a dozen languages. While the name of the parent company has changed somewhat over the years, the book's name has remained constant, known officially as The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy but usually referred to as The Merck Manual and sometimes “The Merck.”

Although the knowledge of medicine has grown, the goal of The Merck Manual has not changed: to provide useful clinical information to practicing physicians, medical students, interns, residents, nurses, pharmacists, and other health care professionals in a concise, complete, and accurate manner. The Merck Manual continues to cover all the subjects expected in a textbook of internal medicine as well as detailed information on paediatrics, psychiatry, obstetrics, gynaecology, dermatology, pharmacology, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, and a number of special subjects. The world’s most widely used medical reference now features expanded clinical focus on each disorder, as well as more specific guidance on patient examinations. The content of the 18th Edition is available online and it is fully searchable. Click on the picture to enter the Internet Edition.

Click to enter the Internet Edition

The Merck Manual of Medical Information - Home Edition was published in 1997. In this revolutionary book, the editors translated the complex medical information in The Merck Manual into plain language, producing a book meant for all those people interested in medical care who did not have a medical degree. The book received critical acclaim and sold over 2 million copies. The Second Home Edition was released in 2003 and continues Merck's commitment to providing comprehensive, understandable medical information to all people. The content of this manual is also available online and it is fully searchable. Click on the picture to enter the Internet Edition.

The Merck Manuals are provided free of charge on the Internet by Merck & Co., Inc., as a public service on a non-profit basis.

Further Reading: Books

Buy this book from

Ronald P. Grelsamer, M.D.: What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Knee Pain and Surgery.
Learn the truth about MRIs and common misdiagnoses - and avoid unnecessary surgery.
Paperback. Warner Books, June 2002.

Synopsis: each year, millions of people go to their doctors complaining of knee pain, often resulting in MRIs and knee surgeries. However, many of these surgeries are unnecessary and so does much more damage to the knees than good. Now Dr. Grelsamer, named one of the best doctors in New York by New York magazine for the last three years in a row, exposes the potential dangers of misread MRIs and explains why, in many cases, surgery is not necessary to alleviate knee pain and provides helpful advice on different procedures when surgery is unavoidable. With rehabilitation exercises and step-by-step guides, he provides comprehensive information on relieving pain due to virtually every knee condition, including arthritis, runner's knee, torn ligaments and cartilage, tendinitis and more. To buy this book, used or new, from, click on the picture

Buy this book from

Jim Johnson. Treat Your Own Knees: Simple Exercises to Build Strength, Flexibility, Responsiveness and Endurance.
Paperback. Hunter House, Inc., October 2003.

From the Author: "the idea behind Treat Your Own Knees is that knee pain is the result of something not functioning properly. Therefore, to get rid of the pain, simply restore the function. And that's exactly the purpose of this book. All the major functions of your knee, strength, flexibility, endurance, and proprioception, are covered in their own chapter and written in non-medical language. At the end of each chapter you will be given an exercise you can do at home, one that involves no special equipment, to improve that particular function of your knee. Sound like a lot to read? Don't worry. At 96 pages, I have intentionally made this book short so you can absorb the information quickly and get that knee better as soon as possible- without lengthy chapters containing information that's nice to know but you can't really use. The best part though, is that since we're treating the function of your knee and not a diagnosis, it matters little whether you're an athlete or housewife, construction worker or secretary, because the underlying treatment principle of improving knee function applies equally to everyone! Based solely on research taken straight from peer-reviewed journals and controlled trials, I think you will find Treat Your Own Knees to be a no-nonsense book that is both practical and easy to follow". To buy this book, used or new, from, click on the picture

Site last updated on: 28 March 2014

Disclaimer: This website is a source of information and education resource for health professionals and individuals with knee problems. Neither Chester Knee Clinic nor Vladimir Bobic make any warranties or guarantees that the information contained herein is accurate or complete, and are not responsible for any errors or omissions therein, or for the results obtained from the use of such information. Users of this information are encouraged to confirm the accuracy and applicability thereof with other sources. Not all knee conditions and treatment modalities are described on this website. The opinions and methods of diagnosis and treatment change inevitably and rapidly as new information becomes available, and therefore the information in this website does not necessarily represent the most current thoughts or methods. The content of this website is provided for information only and is not intended to be used for diagnosis or treatment or as a substitute for consultation with your own doctor or a specialist. Email addresses supplied are provided for basic enquiries and should not be used for urgent or emergency requests, treatment of any knee injuries or conditions or to transmit confidential or medical information. If you have sustained a knee injury or have a medical condition, you should promptly seek appropriate medical advice from your local doctor. Any opinions or information, unless otherwise stated, are those of Vladimir Bobic, and in no way claim to represent the views of any other medical professionals or institutions, including Nuffield Health and Spire Hospitals. Chester Knee Clinic will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages, loss or injury to persons which may occur by the user's reliance on any statements, information or advice contained in this website. Chester Knee Clinic is not responsible for the content of external websites.

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